• The Discrete View – Earnings Per Share – SEC Reporting, Accounting, Finance

    Losses and gains. Don't disperse the recognition of a profit or loss across several phases. In the event the accounting department were to accomplish this, it might permit a business to disperse a loss over several periods, thereby making the reduction look smaller on a per-period basis than it truly is.

    A statement of cash flows for the corresponding prior-year periods However, a company should adopt the integral view from the perspective of accounting efficiency; that is, it's extremely time-consuming to maintain a mass of revenue and expenditure accruals, their continuing adjustments, and documentation of the reasons for them during annually. Instead, use the key view just for the more material transactions that are expected, and use the discrete view for smaller transactions.

    Thus, an organization could accrue the expense for property taxes throughout the year if the amount is significant, or simply set it in the month when the invoice is received, if the sum is small. If there's a material retroactive prior period adjustment made during any given period, disclosure should be made of the impact on net income and earnings per share of any previous period included in the report, as well as on retained earnings. Investments in debt and equity securities The SEC requires that the disclosures in interim reports never be misleading.

    This usually means that a substance change from any disclosure from the latest yearly report ought to be noted in the upcoming interim report.

    But, even though there's absolutely no significant change in a material contingency, the matter needs to continue to be disclosed until resolved. Seasonality. Whenever there are seasonal variations within a company, disclose the seasonal character of its actions, thereby avoiding confusion regarding unusually high or low results in an interim period. It may also be required to supplement reports with financial results for the 12-month periods ended at the interim date for the current and previous years. Lastly, the SEC requires that quarterly filings with it should include the following financial statements: Defined benefit pension plan disclosures Reduced accruals. A substantially smaller number of accruals are likely under the discrete approach, since the assumption is that you should not anticipate the recordation of transactions which haven't yet arisen. In addition, GAAP requires that the next normal disclosures found in annual reports also be addressed in interim reports: When developing interim financial reports, an individual ought to judiciously employ the integral and discrete perspectives to your statements -- that is, the key method is more precise, but the different view is significantly more efficient; and a vital factor in closing the books for an interim period is that there is less time than normal in which to finish all final actions.

    Thus, it is going to be necessary to restrict the integral view to substance transactions, and use the discrete view to all other trades. Beneath the different view of generating interim reports, the premise is that the results reported for a specific interim period are not related to the revenues and expenditures arising during additional reporting periods. Under this view, record the entire impact of a transaction within the reporting period, rather than ratably over the entire calendar year.

    Listed below are examples of the scenarios that can arise under the discrete method: Segment information Disclosures for Interim Reporting Substantial changes in the provision for income taxes Cost of products sold derivation. If another method is used through an interim period compared to at year-end to derive the cost of goods sold, this different method has to be revealed, as well as some substantial adjustments resulting from a reconciliation with the yearly physical inventory count.

    A balance sheet as of the conclusion of the most recent financial quarter The degree of financial reporting contained within the interim reports of publicly-held companies is lower than the requirements for annual financial statements, which can be necessary so as to release interim reports on an accelerated schedule.

    To prevent an excessive Decrease in the level of coverage, GAAP requires the following minimal content in the financial statements: A balance sheet as of the end of the previous fiscal year An income statement for the fiscal year-to-date and for its corresponding prior-year interval Expenses charged entirely within current period. Whether there are costs wholly charged to expense within an interim period, and there are no similar expenses in the corresponding interim period of the previous calendar year, the character and amount of the cost should be disclosed.

    Tip: The SEC allows line items in the balance sheet to be aggregated if a line item is significantly less than 10% of overall assets and the sum has not changed by over 25% since the end of the preceding fiscal year. The same concept applies to the income statement, except that the thresholds have been 15 percent of average net income for the last three financial years (not including loss years) along with also the change limit is 20% in the corresponding interim period of the preceding fiscal year.

    As an example of cash flows, the threshold is 10% of the average of net cash flows from operating activities for the previous three years. Extraordinary products. An extraordinary item is considered a one-time event, so record it entirely within the period when it occurs. Disposals of a material component of the business, or material items considered outstanding, unusual, or infrequent Other-than-temporary impairments The key view is clearly the better method from a theoretical standpoint, since the causes of several trades can span an entire calendar year.

    By way of example, a manager might be given a bonus at the end of December, but he likely had to attain certain results during the entire year to earn it. Otherwise, if you were to embrace the different view, interim reporting could yield exceedingly varied results, with a few periods revealing inordinately high or very low elevation.

    Summary Includes earnings, provision for income taxes, extraordinary items, net earnings, and comprehensive income.

    Asset and liability fair value Info Substantial changes in financial position An income statement for the most recent fiscal quarter and for its corresponding prior-year interval Changes in accounting quote Derivative instrument information Financial instrument reasonable value information Contingent items (the significance of which is judged in relation to the annual financial statements) The following additional disclosures are specific to interim reports: Earnings per share.

    Contains both basic and diluted earnings per share.

    Another great resource for SEC Reporting, Accounting and Finance.


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